Freemasonry was compared to an old acacia with several roots (movements, societies, guilds or more or less esoteric orders, from which he inherited ideas, rituals, and symbols) and several branches (current obedience and rituals). Many legends, some hostesses, circulate about the origins of masonry: Some involve ancient Egyptian priests, other Pythagoreans, others on the Knights Templar… The Freemasons themselves are of different reviews in this regard. What is certain, according to historian Mason Albert Mackey, is that Freemasonry in its current form appeared in the UK in the 18TH century. According to historians D. G. R. Serbanescu and Jacques Pierre, Masonry appeared in the Roman countries to the middle of the century. The 18TH century and quickly developed at the beginning of the next century. Today, the main Masonic symbols are the three great lights: the square, the compass and the volume of the Sacred Law, as well as the letter “G”, written inside a square and a compass, which actually represents the initial words “God” (God), “geometry, Generation, Genius, Gnosis “… Albert Mackey considered that the Masons were taught that “masonry and geometry are synonymous” and that “the geometric symbols found in the rituals of modern Freemasonry can be considered the remnants of the geometric secretions known by the Masons of the Middle Ages, which is now believed to have been lost. ” The occult geometry, sometimes called “Sacred Geometry”, has long been using geometric symbols, such as the circle, triangle, pentagram, etc. For illustrating metaphysical and philosophical ideas.
Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas have given an interesting interpretation of the well-known masonic symbols of the square and compass. They claim that they appeared as a stylized form of the old symbol for royal power – a pyramid whose base represented the Earth’s power, over which a pyramid was engraved, which represented the heavenly power of the priest. These pyramids of power create, by joining, the symbol comes to be known as the “star of David“. According to the two authors, the symbol was first used widely when it appeared on the frontispiece of a large number of medieval churches, and the earliest examples of its use on the buildings erected by the Knights Templar. His use in synagogues appeared much later.
One of the Masonic traditions claimed that Abraham, the Patriarch of the Jews, conveyed to the Egyptians special teachings before the flood. Later, the teachings (which were said to have represented the work of the legendary Hermes Trismegistus) were gathered by the philosopher Euclid in a volume. He studied them under the designation “geometry”. Initially, the Greeks, then the Romans, called this discipline “architecture”.
The Masonic Legends Place the formation of the organization in the era of the Tower of Babel and the building of the Temple in Jerusalem by King Solomon, which is mentioned in the Bible. Ori, according to Mircea Eliade “history begins in Sumer“. Basically, the beginnings of the operative masonry represent the starting of urban culture, the construction of the first cities – fortress. In terms of the prehistory of the human species, however, man has always been a stone-sharer. When the art of stone carving was combined with geometry, architecture appeared. The first great masters were, in fact, architects. The masons of the medieval era had taken over both the knowledge of the building and the organizational model from the “Architects of the Lombard’s”. This guild in northern Italy was the first of whose members assumed the name “Freemasons”, which became short for “The Brothering order of the stoners in freestone and recognized as such. The phrase “recognized as such” was used in the case of members entering later in the order and which had nothing to do with its own, the stoners in stone. A work of alchemy which expressly mentions the term “Freemason” can be dated in the 15TH century ‘ 50. Other Masons researchers claim that the appearance of the order can be historically dated during ancient Rome, contemporary with “Collegium Fabrorum” (College of Workers) A group of builders and architects became a prototype for the subsequent organization of guilds. Most writers place the appearance of Masonic Secrets in the age of the existence of warrior priests, heroes of the Crusades, “Knights Templar“. An 18TH-century writer claimed that modern Freemasonry would have been founded by Godefroy de Bouillon, the leader of the First Crusade, who conquered Jerusalem and which is said to be the founder of the mysterious “abbots of Zion”. The secrets of Freemasonry’s origin have been preserved with fiercely, despite the publication of numerous books and articles on this subject. Walter Leslie Vilmshurst, a mason of account and author of the work “The Meaning of Masonry“, wrote: “The true secret History of the appearance of masonry was not made public in the ranks of the organization itself. In the era in which four London lodges formed a “great United Lodge” in 1717, the speculative Freemasonry had come to dominate completely the founding of this organization – the brickwork or the “working masons”. Freemasonry has gained esoteric knowledge especially from speculative masons, philosophers, alchemists, hermetists or Rosicrucian’s. The origins of Freemasonry cannot be identified from any safe source, but the order has emerged from a combination of traditions that have evolved and merged in a longer period of time.
Freemasonry continued to increasingly expand its ranks, and in 1720 Masonic lodges were founded in France under the auspices of the United Grand Lodge in England. They formed in 1735 a Grand Lodge in Paris. The Grand Lodge was different from the Scottish lodges, which had been formed after Carol I Stuart had fled from England. Tensions between the two branches of French masonry were emphasized in 1746, with the exile in England of Carol Eduard, nicknamed “Dear Prince Charlie” Stuart, or “The young contender“, and his supporters who encouraged the use of the order in Political purposes. In that era became known to the great public the true origin of Freemasonry. In 1737, the teacher of the sons of Prince Carol Eduard who was also a member of the Royal Society, Andrew Michael Ramsey, spoke in front of the Freemason in Paris, the speech dubbed “the word of Ramsey”, in which he declared: “Our order formed an unbroken union with the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem “– order very close to that of the Templars. Ramsey also said that Freemasonry was linked to the ancient schools of mysteries, patronized by the Greek goddess Artemis and the Egyptian Isis.
The German mason, Karl Gotthelf Baron von Hund became a member of the Frankfurt Lodge and in 1751 he founded a branch of the Scottish Rite, called “The Order of strict observation”; After the oath that provided unconditional obedience to the orders of mysterious and “unseen” superiors, as described in the course of the volume, the order ended by merging between the order of the illuminates and the German Freemasonry, during the Congress of Wilhelmsbad. Hund admitted that he carried on the traditions of the Knights Templar, who had been coerced at the beginning of the 14TH century by the regime of Philip the Handsome, King of France, to exile himself to Scotland. The members of this order proclaimed themselves “Knights of the Temple. He claimed that he would transpose the orders of “unknown superiors” whose identity and place of residence was never specified, while others claimed that these “superiors” were not human.
Most researchers believe they were probably the Jacobite supporters of the Stuarts, who died or lost their faith after the defeat of the young contender to the throne.